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Cell elements (86 components)

Actin filament
Description: Actin filaments, or Microfilaments, are filamentous structures in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells and form part of the cytoskeleton

Curator: Steve Jupe
Adherens junction
Description: Adherens junctions are protein complexes that occur at cell–cell junctions in epithelial and endothelial tissues, usually more basal than tight junctions

Curator: Steve Jupe
Amyloid fiber
Description: Amyloids are aggregates of proteins that become folded into a shape that allows many copies of that protein to stick together forming fibrils

Curator: Bruce May
Antigen 01
Description: Representation of an antigen

Curator: Steve Jupe
Antigen 02
Description: Representation of an antigen

Curator: Steve Jupe
Antigen 03
Description: Representation of an antigen

Curator: Steve Jupe
Apoptosome
Description: The apoptosome is a large quaternary protein structure formed in the process of apoptosis

Autophagosome
Description: An autophagosome is a spherical structure with double layer membranes. It is the key structure in macroautophagy, the intracellular degradation system for cytoplasmic contents and also for invading microorganisms

Curator: Steve Jupe
Centriole
Description: A centriole is a cylindrical cell structure composed mainly of a protein called tubulin that is found in most eukaryotic cells

Centromere
Description: The centromere is the specialized DNA sequence of a chromosome that links a pair of sister chromatids. During mitosis, spindle fibers attach to the centromere via the kinetochore. Centromeres were first thought to be genetic loci that direct the behavior of chromosomes.

Curator: Steve Jupe
Chromosome 1
Description: Representation of a chromosome

Curator: Steve Jupe
Chromosome 2
Description: Representation of a chromosome

Curator: Steve Jupe
Chylomicron
Description: Chylomicrons are lipoprotein particles that consist of triglycerides, phospholipids, cholesterol and proteins

Curator: Steve Jupe
Chylomicron remnant
Description: Remnant of chylomicron

Curator: Steve Jupe
Cilium
Description: A cilium is an organelle found in eukaryotic cells. Cilia are slender protuberances that project from the much larger cell body

Collagen fiber
Description: Collagen fibers formed by collagen fibrils

Curator: Steve Jupe
Collagen fibril
Description: Collagen, in the form of elongated fibrils, is mostly found in fibrous tissues such as tendons, ligaments and skin

Curator: Steve Jupe
DNA
DNA
Description: Deoxyribonucleic acid

Curator: Steve Jupe
DNA 3D
Description: Strand model of a linear double-stranded DNA sequence, 30nt long. Colours represent different bases; A:green, C:blue, G:yellow, T:red.

Curator: David Eccles
Designer: David Eccles
DNA damaged
Description: Representation of a damaged DNA

Curator: Steve Jupe
DNA damaged base
Description: Representation of a damaged DNA base

DNA mutation
Description: Representation of a mutation in DNA

Curator: Steve Jupe
DNA replication
Description: Representation of how DNA replicates

DNA simplified
Description: Simplified representation of the Deoxyribonucleic Acid

Curator: Steve Jupe
Early endosome
Description: Early endosomes consist of a dynamic tubular-vesicular network

Curator: Steve Jupe
Endoplasmic reticulum
Description: The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a type of organelle in eukaryotic cells that forms an interconnected network of flattened, membrane-enclosed sacs or tube-like structures known as cisternae

Curator: Steve Jupe
Endosome
Description: An endosome is a membrane-bound compartment inside eukaryotic cells

Curator: Steve Jupe
Exosome
Description: Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles that are present in many and perhaps all eukaryotic fluids, including blood, urine, and cultured medium of cell cultures

Curator: Bruce May
Exosome complex
Description: A multi-protein intracellular complex capable of degrading various types of RNA molecules

Curator: Bruce May
Fanconi anemia
Description: Fanconi anaemia is a rare genetic disease resulting in impaired response to DNA damage

Gap junction
Description: A gap junction directly connects the cytoplasm of two cells, which allows various molecules, ions and electrical impulses to directly pass through a regulated gate between cells

Curator: Steve Jupe
Generic nucleotide 1
Description: Representation of a generic nucleotide

Curator: Steve Jupe
Generic nucleotide 2
Description: Representation of a generic nucleotide

Curator: Steve Jupe
Generic nucleotide 3
Description: Representation of a generic nucleotide

Curator: Steve Jupe
Generic nucleotide 4
Description: Representation of a generic nucleotide

Curator: Steve Jupe
Golgi apparatus
Description: Representation of Golgi apparatus

Curator: Steve Jupe
Granules
Description: Small particles of a cell, like platelets or leukocytes

Curator: Steve Jupe
gRNA
Description: Guide RNAs, or gRNA, are the RNAs that guide the insertion or deletion of uridine residues into mitochondrial mRNAs in kinetoplastid protists in a process known as RNA editing

Curator: Bruce May
HDL
HDL
Description: High-density lipoproteins are one of the five major groups of lipoproteins

Curator: Steve Jupe
Histone pre-mRNA
Description: Representation of a histone pre-mRNA

Curator: Bruce May
Homologous Recombination Repair
Description: Representation of DNA repair by Homologous Recombination Repair

Intron
Description: An intron is any nucleotide sequence within a gene that is removed by RNA splicing during maturation of the final RNA product

Curator: Bruce May
Intron lariat
Description: Representation of an intron lariat

Curator: Bruce May
Keratin dimer
Description: Keratin dimer

Curator: Bruce May
Keratin filament
Description: Keratin filament

Curator: Bruce May
Keratin monomer
Description: Keratin monomer

Curator: Bruce May
Keratin tetramer
Description: Keratin tetramer

Curator: Bruce May
Late endosome
Description: Late endosomes, also known as MVBs, are mainly spherical, lack tubules, and contain many close-packed lumenal vesicles

Curator: Steve Jupe
Lipid droplets
Description: Lipid droplets are lipid-rich cellular organelles that regulate the storage and hydrolysis of neutral lipids and are found largely in the adipose tissue

Curator: Bijay Jassal
Lysosome
Description: Membrane-bound organelles that are spherical vesicles which contain hydrolytic enzymes that can break down virtually all kinds of biomolecules

Curator: Steve Jupe
Melanosome
Description: A melanosome is an organelle that is the site for synthesis, storage and transport of melanin, the most common light-absorbing pigment found in the animal kingdom

microRNA
Description: Small non-coding RNA molecule

Microtubule
Description: Tubular polymer of tubulin

Mitochondrion
Description: The mitochondrion is a double membrane-bound organelle found in all eukaryotic organisms

Curator: Steve Jupe
mRNA
Description: Messenger RNA

Curator: Bruce May
Myosin filament
Description: One of the contractile elements in skeletal, cardiac, and smooth muscle fibers; in skeletal muscle, the filament is about 15 nm thick and 1.5 mcm long

Curator: Steve Jupe
Neurotransmitters
Description: Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals that enable neurotransmission. It is a type of chemical messenger which transmits signals across a chemical synapse, such as a neuromuscular junction, from one neuron (nerve cell) to another "target" neuron, muscle cell, or gland cell

Curator: Steve Jupe
Non-Muscle Myosin II
Description: Non-muscle myosin II is an actin-binding protein that has actin cross-linking and contractile properties and is regulated by the phosphorylation of its light and heavy chains

Nuclear pore complex
Description: Nuclear pores are large protein complexes that cross the nuclear envelope, which is the double membrane surrounding the eukaryotic cell nucleus

Curator: Bruce May
Nucleosome 1
Description: A nucleosome is a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores

Nucleosome 2
Description: A nucleosome is a basic unit of DNA packaging in eukaryotes, consisting of a segment of DNA wound in sequence around eight histone protein cores

Nucleus
Description: The nucleus is a membrane-enclosed organelle found in eukaryotic cells

Curator: Steve Jupe
Open Chromatin 1
Description: Representation of an open chromatid

Open Chromatin 2
Description: Representation of an open chromatid

Peroxisome
Description: Peroxisomes are organelles that are involved in catabolism of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids, D-amino acids, and polyamines, reduction of reactive oxygen species and biosynthesis of plasmalogens

Platelet dense tubular network
Description: A network of membrane-bounded compartments found in blood platelets, where they regulate platelet activation by sequestering or releasing calcium

Curator: Steve Jupe
pre-tRNA
Description: Precursor of tRNA

Curator: Bruce May
pRNA
Description: NoRC associated RNA

Curator: Bruce May
Proteasome
Description: A proteasome degrades unneeded or damaged proteins by proteolysis

Curator: Steve Jupe
Recycling endosome
Description: Recycling endosomes are concentrated at the microtubule organizing center and consist of a mainly tubular network

Curator: Steve Jupe
Ribosome
Description: The ribosome is a complex molecular machine, found within all living cells, that serves as the site of biological protein synthesis

Curator: Bruce May
RNA
RNA
Description: Ribonucleic acid

Curator: Bruce May
rRNA
Description: Ribosomal RNA

Curator: Bruce May
SAHF
Description: Senescence-associated heterochromatin foci

Curator: Steve Jupe
Sarcoplasmic reticulum
Description: The sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is a membrane bound structure found within muscle cells, that is similar to the endoplasmic reticulum in other cells

Curator: Steve Jupe
Single Strand Annealing
Description: Representation of DNA repair by Single-strand annealing

snRNA
Description: Small nuclear RNA

Curator: Bruce May
Spindle fibers
Description: Spindle fibers form a protein structure that divides the genetic material in a cell. The spindle is necessary to equally divide the chromosomes in a parental cell into two daughter cells during both types of nuclear division: mitosis and meiosis

Tight junction
Description: Tight junctions, also known as occluding junctions or zonulae occludentes, are the closely associated areas of two cells whose membranes join together forming a virtually impermeable barrier to fluid

Curator: Steve Jupe
tRNA
Description: Transfer RNA

Curator: Bruce May
Tropomyosin
Description: Tropomyosin is a two-stranded alpha-helical coiled coil protein found in cell cytoskeletons

Curator: Steve Jupe
Troponin
Description: Troponin is a complex of three regulatory proteins (troponin C, troponin I, and troponin T) that is integral to muscle contraction in skeletal muscle and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle

Curator: Steve Jupe
Vacuole
Description: Vacuoles are essentially enclosed compartments which are filled with water containing inorganic and organic molecules including enzymes in solution, though in certain cases they may contain solids which have been engulfed

Vesicle generic
Description: Representation of a generic vesicle

Curator: Steve Jupe
VLDL particle
Description: Very-low-density lipoprotein is a type of lipoprotein made by the liver

Curator: Steve Jupe
VLDL remnant
Description: Remnant of VLDL lipoprotein

Curator: Steve Jupe
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